This essay will look at connection within a healthcare setting up and will give good examples from literature to demonstrate the value of communication. It will use the work of (Ellis& Beattie, 1986) and also (Egan, 1990) as models for effective communication. It will discuss whether these models are adequate alone to enable effective communication and will also draw about personal experiences from the clinical place.
Communication underpins all other nursing interventions (Minardi& Riley, 1997). Communication is a simple tool for healthcare delivery (Rungapadiachy, 1999). To listen to another person is the most caring act of most, Listening and attending will be by far the most crucial aspects of being truly a nurse (Burnard, 1992).
(Roper, 2001) Emphasizes communication as an integral part of the unique function of nursing.
(Peplau, 1988) used the word, psychodynamic nursing, to describe the dynamic relationship between a nurse and an individual.
Peplau explained four phases of this relationship:
The orientation phase, in which the person and the nurse mutually recognize the individuals problem.
The identification phase, in which the person identifies with the nurse, thereby accepting support.
The exploitation phase, where the person makes use of the nurse’s help.
The resolution phase, where the person accepts new goals and frees herself or himself from the partnership.
Peplau also identified six nursing roles of the nurse:
- Counseling Role – dealing with the individual on current problems
- Leadership Role – dealing with the individual democratically
- Surrogate Position – figuratively standing set for aperson in the patient’s life
- Stranger – accepting the individual objectively
- Resource Person – interpreting the medical plan to the patient
- Teaching Role – selling information and helping the patient learn
(Betts, 1992) states that people have a basic drive to relate to one another, which is certainly expressed through conversation. Even if chat doesn’t happen, smiling as isn’t smiling a form of connection albeit non verbal.
Communication can be conceptualized as a series of components that require a message, transmitter, receiver and a channel for transmission. All of these elements could be categorized into either verbal or non-verbal components. Both these categories combine in the skill of active listening, that is a cornerstone of effective connection (Minardi& Riley, 1997).
(Ellis & Beattie, 1986) utilized a diagram to illustrate the connection system, (appendix a).
The communication program is split into verbal and non-verbal parts. The verbal communication consists of text, clauses and sentences, which allows the exchange of information, clarification of issues, demonstrating understanding and also to offer support and direction.
The non-verbal system contains four elements:
Prosodic, which is utilized to provide emphasis to verbal conversation through intonation and rhythm.
Paralinguistic, which will be the vocal but non-verbal expressions such as mmm, ah which will allow the person offering the information the confirmation they are being paid attention to.
Kinesic, is body gestures, for instance facial expressions, gestures, situation of the recipient.
The standing element, which might include physical appearance, personal space.
Although a model of communication can merely demonstrate the communication method it can also oversimplify.
A model only offers a framework for observing, understanding and predicting what arises when two persons communicate (Heath, 1995).
Effective connection between a nurse and a patient is a conscious, target directed process that differs from casual or social interactions. It really is undertaken as an instrument with which to develop trust, effect transformation, promote health, provide restrictions, reinforce, orient, convey, distinguish and work at goals (Schultz & Videbeck, 2002)
An important aspect within effective communication may be the capability to understand the message. Each aspect of communication should be examined separately. For example, within the Kinesic component,
(Egan 1990) offers the acronym, SOLER, when contemplating the aspect of body gestures. Egan suggests to:
Sit Squarely in relation to the client,
Maintain an Open posture,
Lean slightly towards your client,
Maintain reasonable Eye call,
Through personal encounter whilst in the clinical area I have applied this acronym and found it effective although having to examine my very own actions later to evaluate whether its was used to its total potential. I have found that to take a seat squarely with the client isn’t necessarily the very best position it has offered periods of soreness both for myself and visibly to the individual. By seated in this posture there is less possibility to break eye contact without appearing distracted or disinterested. Open body posture can give a feeling of disinterest together with increasing anxiousness in myself in scenarios where there may be a threat of physical aggression. In the suggestion that Egan provides of relaxing, it has been easier sometimes when the other suggestions of Egan’s have already been modified.
(Betts, 1992) states it is important not to stare at the individual for too long as this could be seen as an intimidating gesture as can also distance where too close can be seen as an invasion or a risk or too far could be interpreted as the nurse getting unable professionalism in the workplace powerpoint to cooperate.
Within the verbal factor it is also very important to the nurse to recognize the difference between a person declaring what they signify and indicating what they say (Minardi& Riley, 1997).
An exemplory case of this from my own clinical experience was while having a conversation with an individual, they told me that they just wished to kill themself. Whenever we explored this statement further the patient said that they didn’t truly mean they wanted to kill themselves but rather that they sensed they couldn’t cope with current complications. By sitting and talking about these problems, lots were able to come to be resolved and others discussed. In this situation and with this alarming statement for a student nurse it would have already been an easy get out to dismiss the assertion.
(Speight, 1991) however, claims that by responding in this way could have led to the patient being unwilling to check out this declaration further. Speight shows that reflection works extremely well as a communication strategy.
For annotated bibliography example, when the individual made the affirmation, the response that may be used is one of “ you intend to kill yourself?” and thus encouraging an additional response from the patient about the statement.
To permit effective communication the health care worker must also be aware of the average person factors involved. All conversation between individuals has interior factors that can influence the sending or acquiring of the concept, these can include beliefs, goals, physical and emotional states and the perceptions of others functions, status and personality. External factors can include environmental, social, biological, emotional and financial influences (George, 1990).
(Minardi& Riley, 1997) suggests that additionally it is important in being a powerful communicator to make certain that the dialect used during communication is at a level which might be comprehended through familiarity of text.
Once the basics of interaction are understood, to be able to turn this into effective communication it is crucial for the healthcare employee to examine their very own actions through reflection (Minardi& Riley, 1997).
This may be finished with the aid of a model of reflection such as for example Gibbs reflective cycle (appendix 2). Gibbs identifies five points for reflection. Description, emotions, evaluation, analysis, bottom line and action.
By employing Gibbs reflective cycle I have already been able to distinguish obstacles either personal, environmental or on a physical level. This I really believe offers led me to a larger understanding of my very own actions, thoughts or feelings and helped me discover answers to these obstacles.
In bottom line, this essay has recognized and examined models of communication and discussed the various elements involved. It has given good examples from literature to stress the importance of communication and discovered elements needed towards connection being effective within healthcare. It has got drawn on personal encounter form the clinical region to demonstrate the abilities required in keeping a therapeutic relationship and in addition identified the need for ongoing reflection during the communication processes.